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Eurostat zveřejnil data o počtu zaměstnanců v oblasti kultury

Oblast kultury zaměstnává v průměru 2,5% lidí v Evropě. V roce 2002 bylo odhadnuto, že v 25 zemích EU pracuje v kultuře 4,2 milionu, tj. 2,5% osob. Průměr se pohybuje od 1.4% v Portugalsku a Slovensku, 1.8% v České republice, Litvě a Lucembursku k 3,7% v Estonsku, 3.5% ve Finsku, 3.3% v Holandsku a Švédsku a 3.2% ve Velké Británii.


Cultural employment in Europe
Cultural employment represents 2.5% of total EU employment
Reference: STAT/04/68 Date: 26/05/2004  

STAT/04/68

26 May 2004

Cultural employment in Europe
Cultural employment represents 2.5% of total EU employment
More university graduates but more precarious jobs

In 2002, in the EU251, cultural employment2, which covers both employment in cultural occupations in the whole economy and all employment in cultural economic activities, was estimated at 4.2 million people and accounted for 2.5% of total employment. The cultural employment ratio in the Member States ranged from 1.4% in Portugal and Slovakia and 1.8% in the Czech Republic, Latvia and Luxembourg, to 3.7% in Estonia, 3.5% in Finland, 3.3% in the Netherlands and Sweden, and 3.2% in the United Kingdom.

Although no major difference appears at EU level between cultural employment and total employment as regards gender or age, however, specific characteristics of cultural employment can be observed when comparing educational attainment and security of employment.

Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Communities releases today some key data on cultural employment, comparing its characteristics with total employment. This information is based on the 2002 labour force survey3 and covers the EU Member States, Iceland, Norway, Bulgaria, and Switzerland.

40% of cultural workers in the EU25 are university graduates

Active population within the cultural field in the EU25 is generally better educated than the total labour force: 40% of cultural workers were university graduates4 in 2002, compared to 24% for total employment.

The largest proportions of university graduates in cultural employment were observed in Lithuania (79%), Cyprus (65%), Estonia (60%), France, Spain and Belgium (51% each), and the lowest in Portugal (25%), Italy (27%) and Luxembourg (31%).

In all Member States there was a higher proportion of university graduates in cultural employment than in total employment. The share of graduates was twice as high, or more, among cultural workers than in total employment in the Czech Republic (33% compared to 13%), Slovakia (34% compared to 14%), Hungary (43% compared to 18%), Portugal (25% compared to 11%), Slovenia (34% compared to 16%) and Italy (27% compared to 14%).

Cultural employment and education, 2002


Cultural employment
in thousands
Cultural employment ratio (as % of total empl.)
% of university graduates4

Total employment
Cultural employment
EU251
4 164.3
2.5
24
40
Belgium
89.0
2.3
35
51
Czech Republic
79.6
1.8
13
33
Denmark
79.9
3.1
27
43
Germany
929.7
2.7
23
36
Estonia
19.9
3.7
33
60
Greece
81.7
2.5
24
37
Spain
307.9
2.0
31
51
France
434.0
2.1
28
51
Ireland
42.8
2.7
29
40
Italy
453.0
2.2
14
27
Cyprus
7.3
2.5
33
65
Latvia
15.0
1.8
25
35
Lithuania
30.1
2.7
53
79
Luxembourg
3.2
1.8
21
31
Hungary
69.0
1.9
18
43
Malta
:
:
:
:
Netherlands
249.1
3.3
25
39
Austria
70.4
2.0
19
32
Poland
:
:
:
:
Portugal
60.4
1.4
11
25
Slovenia
20.1
2.5
16
34
Slovakia
27.0
1.4
14
34
Finland
78.8
3.5
34
38
Sweden
139.6
3.3
26
38
United Kingdom
877.1
3.2
28
43
Iceland
6.1
4.2
24
44
Norway
48.4
2.2
34
45
Bulgaria
50.5
2.1
28
54
Switzerland
93.3
2.7
24
36

: Data not available

More temporary jobs, more part-time jobs and more second jobs

Cultural employment is more precarious: 18% of cultural workers had temporary jobs compared to 12% for the total labour force in the EU25 in 2002; 25% of cultural workers had a part time job, against 17% of the EU work force, and 9% of cultural workers had more than one job, three times more than for total employment (3%).

The share of temporary jobs in cultural employment was highest in Portugal (35% of cultural employment), Spain (34%) and France (29%) and lowest in Luxembourg (1%), Estonia and Lithuania (2% each). Proportions of temporary jobs were twice those for total employment in Belgium (17% compared to 8%), France (29% compared to 14%) and Italy (19% compared to 9%).

The Netherlands recorded the highest part-time job rate (56% of cultural employment), followed by Denmark (36%) and Germany (30%), while Slovakia (2%), Latvia (10%) and Cyprus (11%) registered the lowest rates. The proportion of part time jobs in cultural employment was higher than for total employment in all Member States, except for Slovakia. The largest relative discrepancies were recorded in Greece (14% compared to 4%), Slovenia (15% compared to 5%), the Czech Republic (12% compared to 5%) and Portugal (15% compared to 7%).

Concerning the proportion of cultural workers having a second job, Denmark (20%), Latvia (19%) and Lithuania (18%) recorded the highest percentages, while Luxembourg, Slovenia (3% each), Estonia and Ireland (4% each) registered the lowest. The differences between the share of second jobs in cultural employment and in total employment were highest in Latvia (19% compared to 7%), Lithuania (18% compared to 7%), Denmark (20% compared to 11%) and the Netherlands (14% compared to 6%).

More employers and self-employed

In the EU25, 29% of cultural workers were either employers or self employed in 2002, compared with 14% of the total working population. Among Member States, the highest ratios were observed in Italy (47% of cultural employment), Austria (39%) and the Netherlands (32%), and the lowest in Estonia (5%), Latvia (6%) and Lithuania (8%).

The proportion of employers and self-employed in cultural employment was four times higher than in total employment in Austria (39% compared to 9%) and around three times higher in Germany (30% compared to 10%), the Netherlands (32% compared to 11%) and Sweden (27% compared to 9%).

Cultural employment and working characteristics, 2002


% of workers with temporary jobs
% of workers with
part-time jobs
% of workers with
a second job
% of employers &
self-employed

Total
empl.
Cultural
empl.
Total
empl.
Cultural
empl.
Total
empl.
Cultural
empl.
Total
empl.
Cultural
empl.
EU251
12
18
17
25
3
9
14
29
Belgium
8
17
20
21
3
7
15
29
Czech Republic
8
15
5
12
2
7
16
29
Denmark
9
10
21
36
11
20
8
17
Germany
12
18
21
30
2
8
10
30
Estonia
2
2
7
13
4
4
5
5
Greece
11
21
4
14
3
9
30
31
Spain
30
34
8
16
2
6
17
25
France
14
29
16
24
3
10
9
20
Ireland
5
:
17
24
2
4
13
28
Italy
9
19
9
17
1
7
26
47
Cyprus
9
5
6
11
5
5
20
20
Latvia
11
9
7
10
7
19
6
6
Lithuania
6
2
8
15
7
18
6
8
Luxembourg
4
1
12
16
1
3
7
16
Hungary
7
11
3
:
2
5
12
19
Malta
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Netherlands
14
19
44
56
6
14
11
32
Austria
7
11
19
26
4
9
9
39
Poland
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Portugal
21
35
7
15
7
13
19
27
Slovenia
15
26
5
15
2
3
9
20
Slovakia
5
5
2
2
1
6
9
18
Finland
17
24
12
24
4
8
9
19
Sweden
16
22
21
28
9
14
9
27
United Kingdom
6
10
25
26
4
7
11
28
Iceland
6
5
29
41
17
29
15
35
Norway
10
17
26
29
9
13
5
19
Bulgaria
:
:
2
7
1
1
10
12
Switzerland
13
14
33
45
6
14
14
27

: Data not available

  1. EU aggregate based on 23 Member States, as no data is available for Malta and Poland.
  2. Cultural employment covers both cultural occupations in the whole economy and any employment in cultural sectors of the economy (cultural economic activities). Cultural occupations are professional activities with a cultural dimension, such as librarians, writers, performing artists, architects, etc. The occupation is defined as a subset of the ISCO classification. All these occupations are taken into account, whatever the main activity of the employer. Cultural activities are defined as a subset of the NACE classification, and include publishing, motion picture and video activity, wholesale and retail of cultural goods. In these activities, all employment is taken into account, whatever the occupation (artistic, technical, administrative, managerial), because they are all required for the operation of the “cultural industry”.

ISCO stands for International Standard Classification of Occupations.

NACE is the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community.

  1. Source: Eurostat Labour Force Survey. The estimation method was developed by a special Eurostat Task Force led by the DEP (Department of Studies and Prospective) of the French Ministry of Culture and Communication. Analysis of data was carried out by the DEP.
  2. University graduates have completed first or second stage of tertiary education (university or equivalent), that is level 5 or 6 of ISCED classification.
  3. ISCED stands for International Standard Classification of Education. ISCO, NACE and ISCED classifications are available at

http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/ramon/

Issued by:
Eurostat Press Office
Philippe BAUTIER
BECH Building
L-2920 LUXEMBOURG
Tel: +352-4301-33 444
Fax: +352-4301-35 349
eurostat-pressoffice@cec.eu.int
For further information on data:
Spyridon PILOS
Tel: +352-4301-34 206
Fax: +352-4301-35 399
spyridon.pilos@cec.eu.int
Eurostat news releases on the Internet:
Eurostat Data Shop Network:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/
Data Shop Services / List of Data Shops

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